Wednesday, 14 July 2010

C# 4 broke my code! The Pitfalls of COM Interop and Extension methods

A couple of weeks back I got the go-ahead from my boss to upgrade to Visual Studio 2010. What with Microsoft’s legendary commitment to backwards compatibility, and the extended beta period for the 2010 release, I wasn’t expecting any problems. The Upgrade Wizard worked its magic without hiccup, the code compiled, everything seemed fine.

Banana Skin - Image: Chris Sharp / FreeDigitalPhotos.netThen I ran our suite of unit tests. 6145 passed. 15 failed.

When I perused the logs of the failing tests they all had this exception in common:

COMException: Type mismatch. (Exception from HRESULT: 0x80020005 (DISP_E_TYPEMISMATCH))

How could that happen? Nothing should have changed: though I was compiling in VS 2010, I was still targeting .Net 3.5. The runtime behaviour should be identical. Yet it looked like COM Interop itself was broken. Surely not?

A footprint in the flowerbed

I dug deeper. In every case, I was calling an extension method on a COM object – an extension method provided by Microsoft’s VSTO Power Tools, no less.

These Power Tools are painkillers that Microsoft made available for courageous souls programming against the Office Object Model using C#. Up until C# 4, calling a method with optional parameters required copious use of Type.Missing – one use for every optional parameter you didn’t wish to specify. Here’s an example (you might want to shield your eyes):

var workbook = application.Workbooks.Add(Missing.Value);
workbook.SaveAs(
    "Test.xls", 
    Missing.Value, 
    Missing.Value, 
    Missing.Value, 
    Missing.Value, 
    Missing.Value, 
    XlSaveAsAccessMode.xlNoChange, 
    Missing.Value, 
    Missing.Value, 
    Missing.Value, 
    Missing.Value, 
    Missing.Value);

The Power Tools library provides extension methods that hide the optional parameters:

using Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Extensions;

var workbook = application.Workbooks.Add();
workbook.SaveAs(
    new WorkbookSaveAsArgs { FileName = "Test.xls"} );

Can you see what the problem is yet? I couldn’t. So I thought I’d try a work-around.

A big part of C# 4 is playing catch-up with VB.Net improving support for COM Interop. The headline feature is that fancy new dynamic keyword that makes it possible to do late-bound COM calls, but the one that’s relevant here is the support for optional and named parameters. The nice thing is that, whereas using the dynamic keyword requires you to target .Net 4.0, optional and named parameters are a compiler feature, so you can make use of them even if you are targeting .Net 3.5.

That meant that I didn’t need Power Tools any more. In C# 4 I can just rewrite my code like this:

var workbook = application.Workbooks.Add();
workbook.SaveAs( Filename: "Test.xls" );

And that worked. COM Interop clearly wasn’t broken. But why was the code involving extension methods failing?

Looking again over the stack traces of the exceptions in my failed tests I noticed something very interesting. The extension methods didn’t appear. The call was going directly from my method into the COM Interop layer. I was running a Debug build, so I knew that the extension method wasn’t being optimised out.

The big reveal

Then light dawned.

Take a look at the signature of the SaveAs method as revealed by Reflector:

void SaveAs(
   [In, Optional, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Struct)] object Filename,
    /* 11 other parameters snipped */)

Notice in particular how Filename is typed as object rather than string. This always happens to optional parameters in COM Interop to allow the Type.Missing value to be passed through if you opt out of supplying a real value.

Now when C# 3.0 was compiling my code and deciding what I meant by

workbook.SaveAs(new WorkbookSaveAsArgs { ... } );

it had to choose between a call to the SaveAs instance method with 12 parameters or a call to the SaveAs extension method with a single parameter. The extension method wins hands down.

But the landscape changes in C# 4.0. Now the compiler knows about optional parameters. It’s as if a whole bunch of overloads have been added to the SaveAs method on Workbook with 0 through to 12 parameters. Which method does the compiler pick this time? Remember that it will always go for an instance method over an extension method. Since new WorkbookSaveAsArgs { … } is a perfectly good object the compiler chooses the SaveAs instance method, completely ignoring the extension method.

All seems well until we hit Run and Excel is handed the WorkbookSaveAsArgs instance by COM Interop. Not knowing how to handle it, it spits it back out in the form of a Type Mismatch exception.

Mystery solved.

The moral

So watch out if your code uses extension methods on COM objects and you’re planning on upgrading to VS 2010. Don’t assume that your code works the same as before just because it compiled OK. Unit tests rule!

Update: Microsoft have confirmed that this is indeed a breaking change that they didn’t spot before shipping.

6 comments:

DoctaJonez said...

Very interesting, I'll keep an eye out for that one! Luckily I haven't had to do much COM interop pre C# 4 :-)

Seattleite said...

But the extension SaveAs method accepts an argument of type WorkbookSaveAsArgs, doesn't it? Therefore, shouldn't the overload resolution choose the most specialized version?

Sam said...

@Seattleite: Overload Resolution weights instance methods more highly than extension methods. The Compiler will always choose a instance method if the signature of the instance method is compatible, even if the extension method might have arguments that are more specialized.

Theodolus said...

A bit late to the party, but this gave me exactly what I needed to figure out my own problems converting documents into pdf and mht files. Thanks!

ling maaki said...

More about...C# Excel

ling

Dell Mercant said...

Chekc this full source..

Excel.Workbook xlWorkBook;
Excel.Worksheet xlWorkSheet;
object misValue = System.Reflection.Missing.Value;

xlWorkBook = xlApp.Workbooks.Add(misValue);
xlWorkSheet = (Excel.Worksheet)xlWorkBook.Worksheets.get_Item(1);
xlWorkSheet.Cells[1, 1] = "Sheet 1 content";

xlWorkBook.SaveAs("yourFileName", Excel.XlFileFormat.xlWorkbookNormal, misValue, misValue, misValue, misValue, Excel.XlSaveAsAccessMode.xlExclusive, misValue, misValue, misValue, misValue, misValue);
xlWorkBook.Close(true, misValue, misValue);

Source....Create Excel Worksheet

Lee

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